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AIRCRAFT AVIONICS Posted on Sun, July 08, 2018 18:06:09

Altimeter The altimeter is an instrument that measures the
height of an aircraft above a given pressure level. Pressure levels are
discussed later in detail. Since the altimeter is the only instrument that is
capable of indicating altitude, this is one of the most vital instruments
installed in the aircraft. To use the altimeter effectively, the pilot must
understand the operation of the instrument, as well as the errors associated
with the altimeter and how each affect the indication. A stack of sealed aneroid
wafers comprise the main component of the altimeter. An aneroid wafer is a
sealed wafer that is evacuated to an internal pressure of 29.92 inches of
mercury (“Hg). These wafers are free to expand and contract with changes
to the static pressure. A higher static pressure presses down on the wafers and
causes them to collapse. A lower static pressure (less than 29.92 “Hg)
allows the wafers to expand. A mechanical linkage connects the wafer movement
to the needles on the indicator face, which translates compression of the
wafers into a decrease in altitude and translates an expansion of the wafers
into an increase in altitude. [Figure 8-2] Notice how the static pressure is
introduced into the rear of the sealed altimeter case. The altimeter’s outer
chamber is sealed, which allows the static pressure to surround the aneroid
wafers. If the static pressure is higher than the pressure in the aneroid
wafers (29.92 “Hg), then the wafers are compressed until the pressure
inside the wafers is equal to the surrounding static pressure. Conversely, if
the static pressure is less than the pressure inside of the wafers, the wafers
are able to expand which increases the volume. The expansion and contraction of
the wafers moves the mechanical linkage which drives the needles on the face of
the altimeter. Principle of Operation The pressure altimeter is an aneroid
barometer that measures the pressure of the atmosphere at the level where the
altimeter is located and presents an altitude indication in feet. The altimeter
uses static pressure as its source of operation. Air is denser at sea level
than aloft—as altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. This
difference in pressure at various levels causes the altimeter to indicate
changes in altitude. The presentation of altitude varies considerably between
different types of altimeters. Some have one pointer while others have two or
more. Only the multipointer type is discussed in this handbook. The dial of a
typical altimeter is graduated with numerals arranged clockwise from zero to
nine. Movement of the aneroid element is transmitted through gears to the three
hands that indicate altitude. In Figure 8-2, the long, thin needle with the
inverted triangle at the end indicates tens of thousands of feet; the short,
wide needle indicates thousands of feet; and the long needle on top indicates
hundreds of feet.

This indicated altitude is correct, however, only when the
sea level barometric pressure is standard (29.92 “Hg), the sea level free
air temperature is standard (+15 degrees Celsius (°C) or 59 degrees Fahrenheit
(°F)), and the pressure and temperature decrease at a standard rate with an
increase in altitude. Adjustments for nonstandard pressures are accomplished by
setting the corrected pressure into a barometric scale located on the face of
the altimeter. The barometric pressure window is sometimes referred to as the
Kollsman window; only after the altimeter is set does it indicate the correct
altitude. The word “correct” will need to be better explained when referring to
types of altitudes, but is commonly used in this case to denote the approximate
altitude above sea level. In other words, the indicated altitude refers to the
altitude read off of the altitude which is uncorrected, after the barometric
pressure setting is dialed into the Kollsman window. The additional types of
altitudes are further explained later. Effect of Nonstandard Pressure and
Temperature It is easy to maintain a consistent height above ground if the barometric
pressure and temperature remain constant, but this is rarely the case. The
pressure and temperature can change between takeoff and landing even on a local
flight. If these changes are not taken into consideration, flight becomes
dangerous. If altimeters could not be adjusted for nonstandard pressure, a
hazardous situation could occur. For example, if an aircraft is flown from a
high pressure area to a low pressure area without adjusting the altimeter, a
constant altitude will be displayed, but the actual height of the aircraft
above the ground would be lower then the indicated altitude. There is an old
aviation axiom: “GOING FROM A HIGH TO A LOW, LOOK OUT BELOW.” Conversely, if an
aircraft is flown from a low pressure area to a high pressure area without an
adjustment of the altimeter, the actual altitude of the aircraft is higher than
the indicated altitude. Once in flight, it is important to frequently obtain
current altimeter settings en route to ensure terrain and obstruction
clearance. Many altimeters do not have an accurate means of being adjusted for
barometric pressures in excess of 31.00 “Hg. When the altimeter cannot be
set to the higher pressure setting, the aircraft actual altitude is higher than
the altimeter indicates. When low barometric pressure conditions occur (below
28.00), flight operations by aircraft unable to set the actual altimeter
setting are not recommended. Adjustments to compensate for nonstandard pressure
do not compensate for nonstandard temperature. Since cold air is denser than
warm air, when operating in temperatures that are colder than standard, the
altitude is lower than the altimeter indication. [Figure 8-3] It is the
magnitude of this “difference” that determines the magnitude of the error. It
is the difference due to colder temperatures that concerns the pilot. When
flying into a cooler air mass while maintaining a constant indicated altitude,
true altitude is lower. If terrain or obstacle clearance is a factor in
selecting a cruising altitude, particularly in mountainous terrain, remember to
anticipate that a colder-than-standard temperature places the aircraft lower
than the altimeter indicates. Therefore, a higher indicated altitude may be
required to provide adequate terrain clearance.

A variation of the memory aid used for pressure can be
employed: “FROM HOT TO COLD, LOOK OUT BELOW.” When the air is warmer than
standard, the aircraft is higher than the altimeter indicates. Altitude
corrections for temperature can be computed on the navigation computer.
Extremely cold temperatures also affect altimeter indications. Figure 8-4,
which was derived from ICAO formulas, indicates how much error can exist when
the temperature is extremely cold. Setting the Altimeter Most altimeters are
equipped with a barometric pressure setting window (or Kollsman window)
providing a means to adjust the altimeter. A knob is located at the bottom of
the instrument for this adjustment. To adjust the altimeter for variation in
atmospheric pressure, the pressure scale in the altimeter setting window,
calibrated in inches of mercury (“Hg) and/or millibars (mb), is adjusted
to match the given altimeter setting. Altimeter setting is defined as station
pressure reduced to sea level, but an altimeter setting is accurate only in the
vicinity of the reporting station. Therefore, the altimeter must be adjusted as
the flight progresses from one station to the next. Air traffic control (ATC)
will advise when updated altimeter settings are available. If a pilot is not
utilizing ATC assistance, local altimeter settings can be obtained by
monitoring local automated weather observing system/automated surface
observation system (AWOS/ASOS) or automatic terminal information service (ATIS)
broadcasts. Many pilots confidently expect the current altimeter setting will
compensate for irregularities in atmospheric pressure at all altitudes, but
this is not always true. The altimeter setting broadcast by ground stations is
the station pressure corrected to mean sea level. It does not account for the
irregularities at higher levels, particularly the effect of nonstandard
temperature. If each pilot in a given area is using the same altimeter setting,
each altimeter should be equally affected by temperature and pressure variation
errors, making it possible to maintain the desired vertical separation between
aircraft. This does not guarantee vertical separation though. It is still
imperative to maintain a regimented visual scan for intruding air traffic. When
flying over high, mountainous terrain, certain atmospheric conditions cause the
altimeter to indicate an altitude of 1,000 feet or more higher than the actual
altitude. For this reason, a generous margin of altitude should be allowed—not
only for possible altimeter error, but also for possible downdrafts that might be
associated with high winds. To illustrate the use of the altimeter setting
system, follow a flight from Dallas Love Field, Texas, to Abilene Municipal
Airport, Texas, via Mineral Wells. Before taking off from Love Field, the pilot
receives a current altimeter setting of 29.85 “Hg from the control tower
or ATIS and sets this value in the altimeter setting window. The altimeter
indication should then be compared with the known airport elevation of 487
feet. Since most altimeters are not perfectly calibrated, an error may exist.
When over Mineral Wells, assume the pilot receives a current altimeter setting
of 29.94 “Hg and sets this in the altimeter window. Before entering the
traffic pattern at Abilene Municipal Airport, a new altimeter setting of 29.69
“Hg is received from the Abilene Control Tower and set in the altimeter
setting window. If the pilot desires to fly the traffic pattern at
approximately 800 feet above the terrain, and the field elevation of Abilene is
1,791 feet, an indicated altitude of 2,600 feet should be maintained (1,791
feet + 800 feet = 2,591 feet, rounded to 2,600 feet). The importance of
properly setting the altimeter cannot be overemphasized. Assume the pilot did
not adjust the altimeter at Abilene to the current setting and continued using
the Mineral Wells setting of 29.94 “Hg. When entering the Abilene traffic
pattern at an indicated altitude of 2,600 feet, the aircraft would be
approximately 250 feet below the proper traffic pattern altitude. Upon landing,
the altimeter would indicate approximately 250 feet higher than the field
elevation. Mineral Wells altimeter setting 29.94 Abilene altimeter setting
29.69 Difference 0.25 (Since 1 inch of pressure is equal to approximately 1,000
feet of altitude, 0.25 × 1,000 feet = 250 feet.)

When determining whether to add or subtract the amount of
altimeter error, remember that when the actual pressure is lower than what is
set in the altimeter window, the actual altitude of the aircraft is lower than
what is indicated on the altimeter. The following is another method of
computing the altitude deviation. Start by subtracting the current altimeter
setting from 29.94 “Hg. Always remember to place the original setting as
the top number. Then subtract the current altimeter setting. Mineral Wells altimeter
setting 29.94 Abilene altimeter setting 29.69 29.94 – 29.69 = Difference 0.25
(Since 1 inch of pressure is equal to approximately 1,000 feet of altitude,
0.25 × 1,000 feet = 250 feet.) Always subtract the number from the indicated
altitude. 2,600 – 250 = 2,350 Now, try a lower pressure setting. Adjust from
altimeter setting 29.94 to 30.56 “Hg. Mineral Wells altimeter setting
29.94 Altimeter setting 30.56 29.94 – 30.56 = Difference –0.62 (Since 1 inch of
pressure is equal to approximately 1,000 feet of altitude, 0.62 × 1,000 feet =
620 feet.) Always subtract the number from the indicated altitude. 2,600 –
(–620) = 3,220 The pilot will be 620 feet high. Notice the difference is a
negative number. Starting with the current indicated altitude of 2,600 feet,
subtracting a negative number is the same as adding the two numbers. By
utilizing this method, a pilot will better understand the importance of using
the current altimeter setting (miscalculation of where and in what direction an
error lies can affect safety; if altitude is lower than indicated altitude, an
aircraft could be in danger of colliding with an obstacle). Altimeter Operation
There are two means by which the altimeter pointers can be moved. The first is
a change in air pressure, while the other is an adjustment to the barometric
scale. When the aircraft climbs or descends, changing pressure within the
altimeter case expands or contracts the aneroid barometer. This movement is
transmitted through mechanical linkage to rotate the pointers. A decrease in
pressure causes the altimeter to indicate an increase in altitude, and an
increase in pressure causes the altimeter to indicate a decrease in altitude.
Accordingly, if the aircraft is sitting on the ground with a pressure level of
29.98 “Hg and the pressure level changes to 29.68 “Hg, the altimeter
would show an increase of approximately 300 feet in altitude. This pressure
change is most noticeable when the aircraft is left parked over night. As the
pressure falls, the altimeter interprets this as a climb. The altimeter
indicates an altitude above the actual field elevation. If the barometric
pressure setting is reset to the current altimeter setting of 29.68 “Hg,
then the field elevation is again indicated on the altimeter. This pressure
change is not as easily noticed in flight since aircraft fly at specific
altitudes. The aircraft steadily decreases true altitude while the altimeter is
held constant through pilot action as discussed in the previous section.
Knowing the aircraft’s altitude is vitally important to a pilot. The pilot must
be sure that the aircraft is flying high enough to clear the highest terrain or
obstruction along the intended route. It is especially important to have
accurate altitude information when visibility is restricted. To clear
obstructions, the pilot must constantly be aware of the altitude of the
aircraft and the elevation of the surrounding terrain. To reduce the
possibility of a midair collision, it is essential to maintain altitude in
accordance with air traffic rules. Types of Altitude Altitude in itself is a
relevant term only when it is specifically stated to which type of altitude a
pilot is referring. Normally when the term “altitude” is used, it is referring
to altitude above sea level since this is the altitude which is used to depict
obstacles and airspace, as well as to separate air traffic. Altitude is
vertical distance above some point or level used as a reference. There are as
many kinds of altitude as there are reference levels from which altitude is
measured, and each may be used for specific reasons. Pilots are mainly
concerned with five types of altitudes: 1. Indicated altitude—read directly
from the altimeter (uncorrected) when it is set to the current altimeter
setting. 2. True altitude—the vertical distance of the aircraft above sea
level—the actual altitude. It is often expressed as feet above mean sea level
(MSL). Airport, terrain, and obstacle elevations on aeronautical charts are
true altitudes.

3. Absolute altitude—the vertical distance of an aircraft
above the terrain, or above ground level (AGL). 4. Pressure altitude—the
altitude indicated when the altimeter setting window (barometric scale) is
adjusted to 29.92 “Hg. This is the altitude above the standard datum
plane, which is a theoretical plane where air pressure (corrected to 15 °C)
equals 29.92 “Hg. Pressure altitude is used to compute density altitude,
true altitude, true airspeed (TAS), and other performance data. 5. Density
altitude—pressure altitude corrected for variations from standard temperature.
When conditions are standard, pressure altitude and density altitude are the
same. If the temperature is above standard, the density altitude is higher than
pressure altitude. If the temperature is below standard, the density altitude
is lower than pressure altitude. This is an important altitude because it is
directly related to the aircraft’s performance. A pilot must understand how the
performance of the aircraft is directly related to the density of the air. The
density of the air affects how much power a naturally aspirated engine
produces, as well as how efficient the airfoils are. If there are fewer air
molecules (lower pressure) to accelerate through the propeller, the
acceleration to rotation speed is longer and thus produces a longer takeoff
roll, which translates to a decrease in performance. As an example, consider an
airport with a field elevation of 5,048 feet MSL where the standard temperature
is 5 °C. Under these conditions, pressure altitude and density altitude are the
same—5,048 feet. If the temperature changes to 30 °C, the density altitude
increases to 7,855 feet. This means an aircraft would perform on takeoff as
though the field elevation were 7,855 feet at standard temperature. Conversely,
a temperature of –25 °C would result in a density altitude of 1,232 feet. An
aircraft would perform much better under these conditions.


AIRCRAFT AVIONICS Posted on Wed, April 04, 2018 10:35:22


Airbus is actively looking at increasing its
sourcing of composites—the most critical material that goes into making
aircraft lighter and more fuel efficient—from India, said a senior executive in
a recent interview.

The suppliers being looked at include the Adani Group which
is actively setting up capabilities in this segment, Ashish Saraf, Airbus’ vice
president for industry development, strategic partnerships and offsets told ET.

Airbus has a total of 46 suppliers in India. It’s
sourcing from India last year totalled over $550 million. Sourcing of
composites will significantly increase this number.

“The new area that we are looking to do is
composites. We see a good supply base developing in India for that segment.
Composites is a very high-tech, super-speciality manufacturing area. And it’s
growing a lot as the presence of composites in airplanes these days is
significantly higher than the previous years,” said Saraf, who is dubbed
Airbus’ “Make in India” man.

Prior to joining the Airbus Group, Saraf was the
India head of the Tata-Sikorsky joint venture since 2010 and led Sikorsky’s
industrialisation and strategic partnerships in India.

“Adani Defence & Aerospace strongly believes that carbon
composites and allied advanced materials will redefine the aerospace and
defence industry in the coming years, similar to how aerospace grade aluminum
and special alloys transformed the industry a few decades back,” said Ashish
Rajvanshi, Head -Defence and Aerospace, Adani Group.

The Adani Group has formed a joint venture with
an Israeli company called Elbit Systems on unmanned aerial systems (UAS) or
drones called the Hermes 900.

Adani Defemce & Aerospace is now setting up a facility in
Mundra, Gujarat to make carbon composite aerostructures.

“The complex shall have 50,000 square feet
carbon composites aero structures facility addressing the global and local
needs for defence aerospace programs. The facility shall be doubled in the
coming years to 100,000 sqft to further address the civil aircrafts programs,”
Rajvanshi added.

“We are currently having discussions with OEMs
for composite aero structures and aero components for the global aerospace and
defence industry. We are confident that we will be able to meet the global
requirements and quality standards of the aerospace majors like Airbus,” he

Making of composites will also be Adani’s latest
initative as part of its planned foray into aviation. The conglomerate’s
private airport in Mundra is one of the first to see a commencement of
commercial flights under the government’s regional connectivity scheme called
UDAN (Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik), which loosely translates to “Let the common
man fly”.

It has also reportedly brought a majority stake
in new regional airline Air Odisha, earlier owned by Air Deccan.

Composites have now become increasingly popular
in aerostructures to the extent that they account for 50%-70% of most new
aircraft structures. Popular composite structures include fiberglass, carbon
fiber, and fiber-reinforced matrix systems or any combination of any of these.
The greatest advantage of these is weight reduction and a resultant fuel
efficiency. Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner plane was the first one marketed primarily
on its composite structure—it was 50% made of the material–made it
significantly lighter and fuel efficient than its competing peers.

Saraf said Airbus already does some sourcing of
composites in India from Tata Advance Materials (TAML). TAML, part of the
salt-to-software conglomerate Tata Sons, is a tier II or indirect supplier to
Airbus and sells components that fit into its A320 family, the most popular
airliner in the world, the widebodied A350 family, and the A380 jumbo jet, the
biggest passenger aircraft by capacity currently flying.

He added that some other companies such as the
Goa-based Kineco Kaman Composites and the Adani Group are in the reckoning.
Kineco Kaman is a joint venture company between Kineco Group of India and Kaman
Aerospace of the US.