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School of Aeronautics (Neemrana) provides platform and environment for open discussions and interactions between the faculty and students and is designed to ignite and serve the urge to explore and learn beyond boundaries.

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This blog has been created with a view where staff and students can share their latest updates regarding various Technical & General Subjects / Topics, category wise


AIRCRAFT AVIONICS Posted on Sun, July 08, 2018 18:06:09

Altimeter The altimeter is an instrument that measures the
height of an aircraft above a given pressure level. Pressure levels are
discussed later in detail. Since the altimeter is the only instrument that is
capable of indicating altitude, this is one of the most vital instruments
installed in the aircraft. To use the altimeter effectively, the pilot must
understand the operation of the instrument, as well as the errors associated
with the altimeter and how each affect the indication. A stack of sealed aneroid
wafers comprise the main component of the altimeter. An aneroid wafer is a
sealed wafer that is evacuated to an internal pressure of 29.92 inches of
mercury (“Hg). These wafers are free to expand and contract with changes
to the static pressure. A higher static pressure presses down on the wafers and
causes them to collapse. A lower static pressure (less than 29.92 “Hg)
allows the wafers to expand. A mechanical linkage connects the wafer movement
to the needles on the indicator face, which translates compression of the
wafers into a decrease in altitude and translates an expansion of the wafers
into an increase in altitude. [Figure 8-2] Notice how the static pressure is
introduced into the rear of the sealed altimeter case. The altimeter’s outer
chamber is sealed, which allows the static pressure to surround the aneroid
wafers. If the static pressure is higher than the pressure in the aneroid
wafers (29.92 “Hg), then the wafers are compressed until the pressure
inside the wafers is equal to the surrounding static pressure. Conversely, if
the static pressure is less than the pressure inside of the wafers, the wafers
are able to expand which increases the volume. The expansion and contraction of
the wafers moves the mechanical linkage which drives the needles on the face of
the altimeter. Principle of Operation The pressure altimeter is an aneroid
barometer that measures the pressure of the atmosphere at the level where the
altimeter is located and presents an altitude indication in feet. The altimeter
uses static pressure as its source of operation. Air is denser at sea level
than aloft—as altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. This
difference in pressure at various levels causes the altimeter to indicate
changes in altitude. The presentation of altitude varies considerably between
different types of altimeters. Some have one pointer while others have two or
more. Only the multipointer type is discussed in this handbook. The dial of a
typical altimeter is graduated with numerals arranged clockwise from zero to
nine. Movement of the aneroid element is transmitted through gears to the three
hands that indicate altitude. In Figure 8-2, the long, thin needle with the
inverted triangle at the end indicates tens of thousands of feet; the short,
wide needle indicates thousands of feet; and the long needle on top indicates
hundreds of feet.

This indicated altitude is correct, however, only when the
sea level barometric pressure is standard (29.92 “Hg), the sea level free
air temperature is standard (+15 degrees Celsius (°C) or 59 degrees Fahrenheit
(°F)), and the pressure and temperature decrease at a standard rate with an
increase in altitude. Adjustments for nonstandard pressures are accomplished by
setting the corrected pressure into a barometric scale located on the face of
the altimeter. The barometric pressure window is sometimes referred to as the
Kollsman window; only after the altimeter is set does it indicate the correct
altitude. The word “correct” will need to be better explained when referring to
types of altitudes, but is commonly used in this case to denote the approximate
altitude above sea level. In other words, the indicated altitude refers to the
altitude read off of the altitude which is uncorrected, after the barometric
pressure setting is dialed into the Kollsman window. The additional types of
altitudes are further explained later. Effect of Nonstandard Pressure and
Temperature It is easy to maintain a consistent height above ground if the barometric
pressure and temperature remain constant, but this is rarely the case. The
pressure and temperature can change between takeoff and landing even on a local
flight. If these changes are not taken into consideration, flight becomes
dangerous. If altimeters could not be adjusted for nonstandard pressure, a
hazardous situation could occur. For example, if an aircraft is flown from a
high pressure area to a low pressure area without adjusting the altimeter, a
constant altitude will be displayed, but the actual height of the aircraft
above the ground would be lower then the indicated altitude. There is an old
aviation axiom: “GOING FROM A HIGH TO A LOW, LOOK OUT BELOW.” Conversely, if an
aircraft is flown from a low pressure area to a high pressure area without an
adjustment of the altimeter, the actual altitude of the aircraft is higher than
the indicated altitude. Once in flight, it is important to frequently obtain
current altimeter settings en route to ensure terrain and obstruction
clearance. Many altimeters do not have an accurate means of being adjusted for
barometric pressures in excess of 31.00 “Hg. When the altimeter cannot be
set to the higher pressure setting, the aircraft actual altitude is higher than
the altimeter indicates. When low barometric pressure conditions occur (below
28.00), flight operations by aircraft unable to set the actual altimeter
setting are not recommended. Adjustments to compensate for nonstandard pressure
do not compensate for nonstandard temperature. Since cold air is denser than
warm air, when operating in temperatures that are colder than standard, the
altitude is lower than the altimeter indication. [Figure 8-3] It is the
magnitude of this “difference” that determines the magnitude of the error. It
is the difference due to colder temperatures that concerns the pilot. When
flying into a cooler air mass while maintaining a constant indicated altitude,
true altitude is lower. If terrain or obstacle clearance is a factor in
selecting a cruising altitude, particularly in mountainous terrain, remember to
anticipate that a colder-than-standard temperature places the aircraft lower
than the altimeter indicates. Therefore, a higher indicated altitude may be
required to provide adequate terrain clearance.

A variation of the memory aid used for pressure can be
employed: “FROM HOT TO COLD, LOOK OUT BELOW.” When the air is warmer than
standard, the aircraft is higher than the altimeter indicates. Altitude
corrections for temperature can be computed on the navigation computer.
Extremely cold temperatures also affect altimeter indications. Figure 8-4,
which was derived from ICAO formulas, indicates how much error can exist when
the temperature is extremely cold. Setting the Altimeter Most altimeters are
equipped with a barometric pressure setting window (or Kollsman window)
providing a means to adjust the altimeter. A knob is located at the bottom of
the instrument for this adjustment. To adjust the altimeter for variation in
atmospheric pressure, the pressure scale in the altimeter setting window,
calibrated in inches of mercury (“Hg) and/or millibars (mb), is adjusted
to match the given altimeter setting. Altimeter setting is defined as station
pressure reduced to sea level, but an altimeter setting is accurate only in the
vicinity of the reporting station. Therefore, the altimeter must be adjusted as
the flight progresses from one station to the next. Air traffic control (ATC)
will advise when updated altimeter settings are available. If a pilot is not
utilizing ATC assistance, local altimeter settings can be obtained by
monitoring local automated weather observing system/automated surface
observation system (AWOS/ASOS) or automatic terminal information service (ATIS)
broadcasts. Many pilots confidently expect the current altimeter setting will
compensate for irregularities in atmospheric pressure at all altitudes, but
this is not always true. The altimeter setting broadcast by ground stations is
the station pressure corrected to mean sea level. It does not account for the
irregularities at higher levels, particularly the effect of nonstandard
temperature. If each pilot in a given area is using the same altimeter setting,
each altimeter should be equally affected by temperature and pressure variation
errors, making it possible to maintain the desired vertical separation between
aircraft. This does not guarantee vertical separation though. It is still
imperative to maintain a regimented visual scan for intruding air traffic. When
flying over high, mountainous terrain, certain atmospheric conditions cause the
altimeter to indicate an altitude of 1,000 feet or more higher than the actual
altitude. For this reason, a generous margin of altitude should be allowed—not
only for possible altimeter error, but also for possible downdrafts that might be
associated with high winds. To illustrate the use of the altimeter setting
system, follow a flight from Dallas Love Field, Texas, to Abilene Municipal
Airport, Texas, via Mineral Wells. Before taking off from Love Field, the pilot
receives a current altimeter setting of 29.85 “Hg from the control tower
or ATIS and sets this value in the altimeter setting window. The altimeter
indication should then be compared with the known airport elevation of 487
feet. Since most altimeters are not perfectly calibrated, an error may exist.
When over Mineral Wells, assume the pilot receives a current altimeter setting
of 29.94 “Hg and sets this in the altimeter window. Before entering the
traffic pattern at Abilene Municipal Airport, a new altimeter setting of 29.69
“Hg is received from the Abilene Control Tower and set in the altimeter
setting window. If the pilot desires to fly the traffic pattern at
approximately 800 feet above the terrain, and the field elevation of Abilene is
1,791 feet, an indicated altitude of 2,600 feet should be maintained (1,791
feet + 800 feet = 2,591 feet, rounded to 2,600 feet). The importance of
properly setting the altimeter cannot be overemphasized. Assume the pilot did
not adjust the altimeter at Abilene to the current setting and continued using
the Mineral Wells setting of 29.94 “Hg. When entering the Abilene traffic
pattern at an indicated altitude of 2,600 feet, the aircraft would be
approximately 250 feet below the proper traffic pattern altitude. Upon landing,
the altimeter would indicate approximately 250 feet higher than the field
elevation. Mineral Wells altimeter setting 29.94 Abilene altimeter setting
29.69 Difference 0.25 (Since 1 inch of pressure is equal to approximately 1,000
feet of altitude, 0.25 × 1,000 feet = 250 feet.)

When determining whether to add or subtract the amount of
altimeter error, remember that when the actual pressure is lower than what is
set in the altimeter window, the actual altitude of the aircraft is lower than
what is indicated on the altimeter. The following is another method of
computing the altitude deviation. Start by subtracting the current altimeter
setting from 29.94 “Hg. Always remember to place the original setting as
the top number. Then subtract the current altimeter setting. Mineral Wells altimeter
setting 29.94 Abilene altimeter setting 29.69 29.94 – 29.69 = Difference 0.25
(Since 1 inch of pressure is equal to approximately 1,000 feet of altitude,
0.25 × 1,000 feet = 250 feet.) Always subtract the number from the indicated
altitude. 2,600 – 250 = 2,350 Now, try a lower pressure setting. Adjust from
altimeter setting 29.94 to 30.56 “Hg. Mineral Wells altimeter setting
29.94 Altimeter setting 30.56 29.94 – 30.56 = Difference –0.62 (Since 1 inch of
pressure is equal to approximately 1,000 feet of altitude, 0.62 × 1,000 feet =
620 feet.) Always subtract the number from the indicated altitude. 2,600 –
(–620) = 3,220 The pilot will be 620 feet high. Notice the difference is a
negative number. Starting with the current indicated altitude of 2,600 feet,
subtracting a negative number is the same as adding the two numbers. By
utilizing this method, a pilot will better understand the importance of using
the current altimeter setting (miscalculation of where and in what direction an
error lies can affect safety; if altitude is lower than indicated altitude, an
aircraft could be in danger of colliding with an obstacle). Altimeter Operation
There are two means by which the altimeter pointers can be moved. The first is
a change in air pressure, while the other is an adjustment to the barometric
scale. When the aircraft climbs or descends, changing pressure within the
altimeter case expands or contracts the aneroid barometer. This movement is
transmitted through mechanical linkage to rotate the pointers. A decrease in
pressure causes the altimeter to indicate an increase in altitude, and an
increase in pressure causes the altimeter to indicate a decrease in altitude.
Accordingly, if the aircraft is sitting on the ground with a pressure level of
29.98 “Hg and the pressure level changes to 29.68 “Hg, the altimeter
would show an increase of approximately 300 feet in altitude. This pressure
change is most noticeable when the aircraft is left parked over night. As the
pressure falls, the altimeter interprets this as a climb. The altimeter
indicates an altitude above the actual field elevation. If the barometric
pressure setting is reset to the current altimeter setting of 29.68 “Hg,
then the field elevation is again indicated on the altimeter. This pressure
change is not as easily noticed in flight since aircraft fly at specific
altitudes. The aircraft steadily decreases true altitude while the altimeter is
held constant through pilot action as discussed in the previous section.
Knowing the aircraft’s altitude is vitally important to a pilot. The pilot must
be sure that the aircraft is flying high enough to clear the highest terrain or
obstruction along the intended route. It is especially important to have
accurate altitude information when visibility is restricted. To clear
obstructions, the pilot must constantly be aware of the altitude of the
aircraft and the elevation of the surrounding terrain. To reduce the
possibility of a midair collision, it is essential to maintain altitude in
accordance with air traffic rules. Types of Altitude Altitude in itself is a
relevant term only when it is specifically stated to which type of altitude a
pilot is referring. Normally when the term “altitude” is used, it is referring
to altitude above sea level since this is the altitude which is used to depict
obstacles and airspace, as well as to separate air traffic. Altitude is
vertical distance above some point or level used as a reference. There are as
many kinds of altitude as there are reference levels from which altitude is
measured, and each may be used for specific reasons. Pilots are mainly
concerned with five types of altitudes: 1. Indicated altitude—read directly
from the altimeter (uncorrected) when it is set to the current altimeter
setting. 2. True altitude—the vertical distance of the aircraft above sea
level—the actual altitude. It is often expressed as feet above mean sea level
(MSL). Airport, terrain, and obstacle elevations on aeronautical charts are
true altitudes.

3. Absolute altitude—the vertical distance of an aircraft
above the terrain, or above ground level (AGL). 4. Pressure altitude—the
altitude indicated when the altimeter setting window (barometric scale) is
adjusted to 29.92 “Hg. This is the altitude above the standard datum
plane, which is a theoretical plane where air pressure (corrected to 15 °C)
equals 29.92 “Hg. Pressure altitude is used to compute density altitude,
true altitude, true airspeed (TAS), and other performance data. 5. Density
altitude—pressure altitude corrected for variations from standard temperature.
When conditions are standard, pressure altitude and density altitude are the
same. If the temperature is above standard, the density altitude is higher than
pressure altitude. If the temperature is below standard, the density altitude
is lower than pressure altitude. This is an important altitude because it is
directly related to the aircraft’s performance. A pilot must understand how the
performance of the aircraft is directly related to the density of the air. The
density of the air affects how much power a naturally aspirated engine
produces, as well as how efficient the airfoils are. If there are fewer air
molecules (lower pressure) to accelerate through the propeller, the
acceleration to rotation speed is longer and thus produces a longer takeoff
roll, which translates to a decrease in performance. As an example, consider an
airport with a field elevation of 5,048 feet MSL where the standard temperature
is 5 °C. Under these conditions, pressure altitude and density altitude are the
same—5,048 feet. If the temperature changes to 30 °C, the density altitude
increases to 7,855 feet. This means an aircraft would perform on takeoff as
though the field elevation were 7,855 feet at standard temperature. Conversely,
a temperature of –25 °C would result in a density altitude of 1,232 feet. An
aircraft would perform much better under these conditions.


GENERAL TOPICS Posted on Tue, July 03, 2018 13:14:09


DELHI: People flying business jets to Bengaluru and Hyderabad may soon be
landing at the older airports in those cities as the aviation ministry is
looking at a proposal to shift business aircraft movements out of congested
airports in big cities.

The proposal was discussed in a meeting convened
by aviation secretary RN Choubey last month and Business Aircraft Operators
Association (BAOA) has been asked to prepare a list of alternative airports,
people familiar with the development said.

We have been asked to identify alternate airports
for general aviation flights in the country,” BAOA managing director RK Bali
said. “Not all cities have alternate airports available but some of them have
alternate airports, which we are going to suggest should be made available
within 25 to 30 km, immediately and/or in the medium or long term,” he told ET.

For example, according to industry insiders,
while alternative airports in Mumbai and Delhi may not be immediately
available, in Hyderabad and Bengaluru older airports can be used for business
Jet operations.

“Begumpet airport in Hyderabad and HAL airport in
Bengaluru can be used for business jet operations and will be beneficial for
business jet travellers too, as it will save time (being closer to the city),”
one of them said. They said business jet operators would look at making
proposed Navi Mumbai airport in Mumbai as their main airport whenever it comes

“For Delhi, there is enough capacity
available, as a fourth runway is also coming up,” said the person quoted
earlier. The move is in line with global trends — big airports like Heathrow in
London and JFK airport in New York do not allow business jets to land and park.
Confirming the development, a senior aviation ministry official said, “A
proposal to shift general aviation to alternate airports was discussed and BAOA
will discuss the matter with scheduled airlines to arrive at a feasible

Industry insiders said the government should look
at increasing capacity at smaller airports to ensure that there are enough
parking bays at these airports.

“There are various problems with smaller airports
across the country,” said Kanika Tekriwal, founder of JetSetGo, an online
marketplace for private jets and helicopters.

“While airport in Jabalpur does not have bays to
park airplanes, airport in Aurangabad is open only for four hours due to lack
of air traffic controllers to manage them. There are many such examples. The
government should also look at building capacity and infrastructure at smaller
airports to ensure that there is enough space to park,” she said.

Capacity at many key airports in the country has
reached saturation, making any flight additions by carriers difficult. Allowing
airlines to operate flights out of alternate airports will help create some
space at these airports.


AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Posted on Wed, April 18, 2018 10:13:54

Related image

Vistara is likely to place an order for wide-bodied aircraft
in the next few weeks as part of its plans to expand to long-haul overseas
routes, people aware of the deliberations at the premium domestic carrier told

they did not specify the maker of the planes or the number likely to be
ordered, the development signifies that Tata Sons, which runs the airline in a
joint venture with Singapore Airlines, is pressing ahead with its plans for
Vistara even as it remains undecided on whether to invest in Air India.

The airline currently operates
a fleet of 20 narrow-bodied Airbus A320 planes of about 180 seats. Wide-bodied
planes typically have more than 300 seats, twin engines and a longer range of
more than eight hours.

“Vistara plans to induct
wide-bodied planes irrespective of whether the Air India deal happens,” said
one of the persons, who did not wish to be identified. Spokespersons at Vistara
could not be reached for comment.

The airline’s salt-to-software conglomerate
parent is said to be interested in bidding for Air India, which has been put on
the block by the government. One of the advantages is the national carrier’s
international operations.

Experts have said that it makes
sense for the Tatas to systematically merge Air India at least operationally
with Vistara if the deal fructifies. The Tatas also run a no-frills carrier, in
a joint venture with Malaysia’s Air Asia.

But a
final decision from the Tatas hangs in a limbo as it is not enthused by the
current terms of the bid — taking over majority of Air India’s debt and
workforce; keeping it at arm’s length from other businesses, which rules out a
merger of operations with an existing carrier; and conceding almost a quarter
shareholding to the government.

“Singapore Airlines is an extremely focused
carrier,” said Mark Martin, founder of Martin Consulting. “It didn’t get into
an understanding to set up an Indian airline keeping in mind a chance
investment (in Air India). It has always had its long-term plans and those

Tata Sons and several interested bidders are in
talks with the government seeking changes to some of the bid conditions that
they think are not conducive to investment, according to people in the

Vistara’s plans for bigger planes and longer
flights were first reported by ET in 2016, in an interview with the airline’s
former CEO Phee Teik Yeoh, who spoke about potential long-term plans of
starting direct flights to UK and US. Leslie Thng replaced Yeoh as CEO in
October last year.

He has said that Vistara plans to start with
short-haul international operations to neighbouring destinations in the second
half of 2018. He hasn’t elaborated on the airline’s long-haul plans.

In January, ET reported that Vistara had plans
to launch flights to Tehran first and then Singapore, citing a proposal to the
aviation ministry. Separately, ET reported that Vistara and Singapore Airlines
were working on an anti-trust immunity agreement which would help Vistara
synergise operations with its parent through cross accessing of inventory and

Vistara places an order for wide-bodied aircraft, it will be the first such
order from India since 2009, when Jet Airways had placed orders for Boeing 787
Dreamliners. Meanwhile, IndiGoNSE -0.02 %, India’s biggest a irline by market
share, is charting its own plans of fresh orders for wide-bodied planes for
planned operations to Europe and has reportedly selected the A330neo.

Although IndiGo too had expressed interest in
investing in Air India, it opted out on April 6, saying it was interested only
in the state-owned carrier’s international operations and did not have the
capability to turn around all of the national carrier’s domestic

may opt for the Airbus A330neo (list priced between $254.8 million and $290.6
million), the A350 ($275 million-$311 million) or the Boeing 787 Dreamliner
($225 million-$306 million). The actual deal prices will be considerably
discounted depending on the volume of the order.

CFD analysis of F-16 Fighting Falcon

AERODYNAMICS Posted on Fri, April 13, 2018 16:37:55

There are following steps to do CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis of F-16 Fighter falcon are:-




Boundary condition:-
viscosity:- K-epsilon (2-equation)


At Y-axis

At Z-axis

Presented by :- Er. Saurabh Malpotra


GENERAL TOPICS Posted on Wed, April 11, 2018 09:59:50


MUMBAI: New Delhi’s Indira Gandhi International
Airport has jumped six notches to break into the league of the top 20 busiest
airports in the world for 2017 in terms of traffic volumes.

The GMR-group-run New Delhi airport jumped from
22nd rank in 2016 to 16th rank, solidifying its status as one of the fastest
growing airports in the world for passenger traffic, as per the Airports
Council International (ACI).

The ranking is based on the preliminary passenger
traffic results for the most-travelled airports in 2017, released by the ACI

Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport
(ATL) was ranked the busiest airport in the world with 103 million passengers
(both departing and arriving) despite a 0.3 per cent decline in traffic volumes
over 2016.

Founded in 1991 with the objective of fostering
cooperation among its member airports and other partners in world aviation, ACI
is the trade association of the world’s airports, currently serving 641 members
operating from 1,953 airports across 176 countries.

ACI’s World Airport Traffic Forecasts also
predicts that the country will represent the third largest aviation market, in
terms of passenger throughput, after the US and China by 2020.

“Delhi, the country’s busiest airport for
passenger traffic, grew by 14.1 per cent year-over-year at 63.45 million,
pushing it up from 22nd to the 16th busiest airport in the world,” the ACI
said in the release.

Even with this rapid growth in throughput, Delhi
was also ranked first in Airport Service Quality for airports above 40 million
passengers per annum along with the Mumbai airport, it said.

Besides, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Bengaluru and
Chennai were also ranked among the fastest growing airports in the world with
an year-over-year growth of 26.9 per cent, 19.6 per cent, 12.9 per cent and
10.5 per cent, respectively during 2017, the ACI said in the release.

Growing rapidly in relatively short period of
time, India is poised to be one of the largest aviation markets in the world in
the years to come, the ACI said.

“With an astounding population base of over
1.3 billion inhabitants, the move towards a more liberalised aviation market
coupled with stronger economic fundamentals has helped to awaken the Bengal
tiger to become one of the fastest growing markets in the world,” the ACI

ACI’s World Airport Traffic Forecasts predicts
that the country will represent the third largest aviation market, in terms of
passenger throughput, after the US and China by 2020, it added.


GENERAL TOPICS Posted on Fri, April 06, 2018 11:11:18

Wipro Infrastructure Engineering looks up, eyes $100 mn from aerospace

Wipro Infrastructure Engineering (WIN) says it expects revenue to double to
over $100 million from its aerospace business on the back of growing business
from customers such as Airbus and Boeing.

“Today (revenue) in aerospace alone, the ball
park figure is about $50 million. My ambition is to see that it actually
doubles in the next three years,” said Pratik Kumar, chief executive of Wipro Infrastructure
Engineering. “In our order book, we have a visibility of over 8-9 years. But,
growth is not going to come from the order book alone; it will come through new

WIN has been around for close
to four decades with deep expertise in hydraulic solutions space. Last year,
WIN acquired HR Givon, an Israel-based aerospace metallic parts supplier, in a
bid to broaden its portfolio and expand its footprint in the aviation and aerospace
industry. The acquired entity has been renamed Wipro Givon.

While Airbus and Boeing are
large system integrators, the opportunity is to tie-up with the tier I and
tier-II vendors of these plane makers who look to expand their partner network
globally. WIN is looking at this opportunity, building capabilities in house
and delivering systems and sub-systems to them.

It is also looking to the tap
the customer base of Wipro Technologies, offering clients an end to-end
solution from design to manufacturing systems and subsystems from across its
centres in India, Israel, Europe and the US.

“Our approach has been to go
beyond building expertise in the design and engineering side. To be able to
graduate from what we are doing on the assemblies level to move on to become a
subsystem player,” Kumar said.

India’s offset policy is also
an added incentive for WIN, which looks to tap the opportunity to deliver
components and systems to global vendors who need to honour their commitment
for planes and arms they sell to the country’s armed forces.

In the past year, Indian
suppliers are seeing an uptick in offset orders and expanding their facilities.
“Offset order is a big attraction. There is lot of investment which is
beginning to happen in anticipation that the offset opportunity will fructify.
But it is still work in progress,” Kumar said.


AIRCRAFT AVIONICS Posted on Wed, April 04, 2018 10:35:22


Airbus is actively looking at increasing its
sourcing of composites—the most critical material that goes into making
aircraft lighter and more fuel efficient—from India, said a senior executive in
a recent interview.

The suppliers being looked at include the Adani Group which
is actively setting up capabilities in this segment, Ashish Saraf, Airbus’ vice
president for industry development, strategic partnerships and offsets told ET.

Airbus has a total of 46 suppliers in India. It’s
sourcing from India last year totalled over $550 million. Sourcing of
composites will significantly increase this number.

“The new area that we are looking to do is
composites. We see a good supply base developing in India for that segment.
Composites is a very high-tech, super-speciality manufacturing area. And it’s
growing a lot as the presence of composites in airplanes these days is
significantly higher than the previous years,” said Saraf, who is dubbed
Airbus’ “Make in India” man.

Prior to joining the Airbus Group, Saraf was the
India head of the Tata-Sikorsky joint venture since 2010 and led Sikorsky’s
industrialisation and strategic partnerships in India.

“Adani Defence & Aerospace strongly believes that carbon
composites and allied advanced materials will redefine the aerospace and
defence industry in the coming years, similar to how aerospace grade aluminum
and special alloys transformed the industry a few decades back,” said Ashish
Rajvanshi, Head -Defence and Aerospace, Adani Group.

The Adani Group has formed a joint venture with
an Israeli company called Elbit Systems on unmanned aerial systems (UAS) or
drones called the Hermes 900.

Adani Defemce & Aerospace is now setting up a facility in
Mundra, Gujarat to make carbon composite aerostructures.

“The complex shall have 50,000 square feet
carbon composites aero structures facility addressing the global and local
needs for defence aerospace programs. The facility shall be doubled in the
coming years to 100,000 sqft to further address the civil aircrafts programs,”
Rajvanshi added.

“We are currently having discussions with OEMs
for composite aero structures and aero components for the global aerospace and
defence industry. We are confident that we will be able to meet the global
requirements and quality standards of the aerospace majors like Airbus,” he

Making of composites will also be Adani’s latest
initative as part of its planned foray into aviation. The conglomerate’s
private airport in Mundra is one of the first to see a commencement of
commercial flights under the government’s regional connectivity scheme called
UDAN (Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik), which loosely translates to “Let the common
man fly”.

It has also reportedly brought a majority stake
in new regional airline Air Odisha, earlier owned by Air Deccan.

Composites have now become increasingly popular
in aerostructures to the extent that they account for 50%-70% of most new
aircraft structures. Popular composite structures include fiberglass, carbon
fiber, and fiber-reinforced matrix systems or any combination of any of these.
The greatest advantage of these is weight reduction and a resultant fuel
efficiency. Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner plane was the first one marketed primarily
on its composite structure—it was 50% made of the material–made it
significantly lighter and fuel efficient than its competing peers.

Saraf said Airbus already does some sourcing of
composites in India from Tata Advance Materials (TAML). TAML, part of the
salt-to-software conglomerate Tata Sons, is a tier II or indirect supplier to
Airbus and sells components that fit into its A320 family, the most popular
airliner in the world, the widebodied A350 family, and the A380 jumbo jet, the
biggest passenger aircraft by capacity currently flying.

He added that some other companies such as the
Goa-based Kineco Kaman Composites and the Adani Group are in the reckoning.
Kineco Kaman is a joint venture company between Kineco Group of India and Kaman
Aerospace of the US.


GENERAL TOPICS Posted on Sat, March 31, 2018 09:43:02


The Indian aviation industry is estimated to grow
by 18 per cent during FY2018, ratings agency ICRA said on Friday.

“The domestic passenger traffic growth
remained healthy backed by improvement in core growth drivers like economic
environment and increasing tourism demand,” the ratings agency said.

“The strong demand has pushed the passenger
load factor (PLF) to an all-time high of 86.5 per cent in the current fiscal
and India remains one of the best performing key domestic aviation markets in
the world in terms of PLF.”

As per ICRA, in terms of international routes,
the Indian airlines continued to outperform the industry during the current

“The international passenger traffic growth
from India is estimated to be 10 per cent in FY2018, while the Indian airlines
are expected to report a growth of 13.5 per cent during the same period,”
it said.

“Increasing capacity deployment by Indian
airlines on international routes and growing tourism demand are the key growth
drivers. Resultantly, the market share of the Indian airlines on international
routes has remained at an all-time high during the current fiscal,” the
ratings agency added.


GENERAL TOPICS Posted on Fri, March 30, 2018 11:15:22

Image result for Vietnamese Start-up Selects Airbus

Vietnam’s FLC Group, one of the country’s largest conglomerates
with interests in financial investments, real estate and mining, has signed a
memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Airbus for up to 24 A321neo aircraft in
a deal potentially valued at $3bn. It is planning to use the new jets for
future operations by start-up carrier Bamboo Airways.

The new airline is set to start services in 2019 with aircraft
on lease from third-party lessors until its new A321neo start to be delivered
from 2022. Initially, Bamboo Airways will focus on linking international
markets to Vietnamese leisure destinations, as well as on selected domestic

Trinh Van Quyet, Chairman of the FLC Group, remarked: “After
evaluating carefully the competing products, FLC Group and Bamboo Airways have
selected the A321neo as the most efficient option for new operation. The
A321neo will enable us to combine comfort, efficiency and the right capacity
for our planned services, which will primarily serve fast growing leisure markets
in Vietnam.”


GENERAL TOPICS Posted on Mon, March 26, 2018 09:45:14

UDAN set to connect 100 regional airports soon

In a major
push to the government’s flagship regional connectivity scheme, Prime Minister
Narendra Modi plans to almost double its reach by starting subsidised flights
to 100 airports in the country.

The Prime Minister’s Office has asked the civil
aviation ministry to examine adding 44 airports under the scheme called Ude
Desh ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN). “The aviation ministry has to examine the
possibility of adding another 44 airports under the scheme,” said a senior
government official who did not want to be identified.

The government has announced flights connecting
56 airports and 31 helipads in the initial two phases. Under UDAN, air
connectivity is provided to unserved and underserved airports at a subsidised
fare of Rs 2,500 per hour. The subsidy is funded through a mix of a charge of
Rs 5,000 per flight for all airlines operating on domestic trunk routes and
through the Airports Authority of India’s dividend payment.

Airlines and helicopter operators that have bid
for and won these routes are in the process of starting flights. Only
state-owned Air India and SpiceJet participated in phase I, while the second
phase attracted IndiGo and Jet Airways, too.

IndiGo has ordered 50 ATR aircraft for these
routes and SpiceJet has increased the number of Bombardier Q 400 aircraft on
order to 50. SpiceJet bid for routes without seeking subsidy in the first and
second phase, IndiGo did not seek subsidy to operate regional flights.

Widening regional air connectivity was in the
BJP manifesto and the Prime Minister inaugurated the first flight under UDAN by
Air India on the Shimla-New Delhi route in April last year.

PM Modi, during the launch of the first flight,
said his government intends to make people wearing hawai chappal (slippers) fly
in hawai jahaaz (airplanes).

The focus on expansion may mean the government will project
the scheme as one of its achievements.

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